Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Dr. Pierce's "State of the Race" in the Watergate Era

From ATTACK! tabloid, Issue No. 21, 1973:

The Alienated Society

One thing which the Watergate affair clearly demonstrates is that the same alienation which has swept millions of dropped-out young Americans into the drug-ridden "counter-culture" pervades our entire society, even to the Oval Office in Washington and the boardrooms of Wall Street. In fact, it is even more pervasive in the highest political and economic strata of our ruling gerentocracy  than it is in our high schools and colleges. It began at the top and worked its way down. 

Leaders Have Sold Out

Alienation among America's so-called "leaders" during the last half-century or so -- alienation which has taken the form of an inner attitude of It's-every-man-for-himself-and-I'm-looking-out-for-number-one -- is, historically, the cause of the present alienation of America's youth from their racial and cultural community. 

There are many who will disagree with the foregoing, many who believe that the rich and powerful men who hold public office in this country are more firmly attached to  the "principles of Americanism," or some such, than the rest of us. These many fail to understand that alienation is a matter of inner attitude and not external life-style. They also cannot distinguish illusion from reality or falsehood from truth.

Half-a-pint for a Vote

Now and then, however, the veil of lies with which the high and mighty shield themselves from the common gaze is lifted slightly from the breezes of chance, and we can catch a fleeting glimpse of reality. The Watergate affair has given rise to such a breeze.

We are shocked by the revelations of Nixonian political sabotage and eavesdropping and burglary, all for the sake of a few more votes, just as we have been shocked in the past by the revelations of the Democratic political machine in Chicago counting names on tombstones or a Kennedy gang buying votes in West Virginia for a half-a-pint of whiskey each. We are appalled when the cynicism, greed and lack of scruple of those we have chosen to be our leaders are momentarily revealed to us.

If Busing, Why Not Burgling?

But, really, we should not be surprised. For had not Mr. Nixon already betrayed a hundred times over the trust placed in him, even before Watergate?

How can a man who has unleashed on America a program for school busing for racial balance, or supported the Zionist program of conquest in the Middle East with American taxes, or made futile the sacrifice of 50,000 American lives in Indochina have any further surprises for us? Or do we consider a little burglary for the sake of a few votes a worse crime than selling the interests of a whole nation in return for the political support -- or toleration -- of the alien power clique which controls America's mass media.

Is Bribery Worse than Treason?

Is an illegal wiretap  more a sign of cynicism than the callous subjection of America's school children to the terror and degradation which have accompanied the massive school integration of recent years?

Is the failure to report a campaign contribution more a sign of moral corruption than the failure to punish the traitors who have brazenly given aid and comfort to our enemies during the Vietnam war?

Is the payment of a little hush money or an attempt to cover up involvement in a political scandal more reprehensible than stabbing an ally in the back, thereby dishonoring the whole American people in the eyes of the world?

Alienation in the Air

One would think so, judging by the uproar the media have generated over the Watergate affair. But America's youth, even though they are also under the media's spell, were told by their instincts long ago that they had been betrayed. They knew it in their bones when those in whose hands the destiny of the nation had been placed ceased to care about anything but their own comfort and their own wealth and their own power.

The alienation at the top was in the air even before FDR, with his sly grin and his long cigarette holder, smoothly lied America into the Western world's most catastrophic war. 

Young people smelled the corruption in America's soul while Harry Truman was sacrificing American principle to Zionist expediency.

They unconsciously knew that Ike and JFK and LBJ were selling the country down the river in order to further their own careers.

Sense of Abandonment

When America's leaders had lost all sense of responsibility to race and nation; when duty and honor had become empty catchwords; when the heritage of our people had become mere booty to be plundered by all who could claw their way to the public feed trough -- then not even the most skillfully woven curtain of lies and pretense could keep a deep sense of abandonment from welling up in the hearts of America's youth

Confidence faded. The sense of community was lost, and with it any feeling of belonging and responsibility. Alienation had worked its way all the way down.

No Conspiracy

It would be wrong to attribute the decay of American social and cultural institutions which has progressed hand-in-hand with the alienation of the American people to any single, malevolent plan.  A certain degree of alienation was the unplanned but inevitable consequence of the industrialization and urbanization of America. The radical social changes accompanying this transformation of American lifestyles affected all classes of the population.

With the growing sense of anonymity and isolation among dwellers  ever-more-densely populated urban centers went a decline in civic virtues at all levels. The gradual erosion of the individual's sense of racial and cultural identity manifested itself in the gradual decline of a sense of civic responsibility, both on the part of the average citizen and those he chose to manage his public affairs. 

Irresponsibility Breeds Irresponsibility

Once started, the process of alienation accelerated. A more and more irresponsible citizenry could only lead to more and more irresponsible leadership and, in turn, to laws reflecting that irresponsibility.

One might have expected that exceptional leaders would have been immune to this process and would have exerted a healing effect on the body politic. This has not been the case, at least, not in recent decades; instead, alienation became total among American leaders while it still had a long way to go among the electorate.

Media Masters

The principle cause of this was the capture of America's opinion-forming media by a single, tightly organized, alien minority. From that point, a prerequisite for holding high public office in the United States was the seal of approval of the media masters.

No man of Western blood with a sense of commitment to his own people could possibly attain that approval. only the completely alienated, the totally cynical, the utterly hypocritical, the thoroughly corrupt, the unreservedly selfish would do -- men who could be counted on to go along in order to get along.

The average U.S.Senator...would not be unhappy if the 
Arabs drowned [the Jews] in the sea and reclaimed their stolen land.

From their positions in the Congress, the Federal courts, and the Federal agencies such men have overseen the ruinous policies which have done such grievous damage to America. They have supported and implemented these policies not primarily through malice or mistaken ideological conviction, but through callous indifference to their responsibility to their people.


No Room for True Believers

The average U.S.Senator who signs his name to Zionist petitions and votes for more American support of Israeli territorial expansion has no particular love for Jews. He would not be unhappy if the Arabs drowned them in the sea and reclaimed their stolen land.

Likewise, the average Federal judge who orders White children bused into Black-dominated schools where they will be terrorized and brutalized is not motivated by any cockeyed equalitarian theory. He could hardly care less what the racial balance is in America's schools (except the school his children attend, of course.)

There are plenty of neo-liberal zealots among America's masses, but not many among her leaders. Most of the men at the top are too smart for that; among them self-interest has edged out true-believing -- and everything else.

They work for the ruin of America simply because they are in thrall to the media masters, who form their public images, wield power over their careers, and determine what the history books will say about them -- and because they themselves have no inner commitment to their nation or to their race, but only to themselves.

 Stumbling along

With America governed by such men, it is not surprising that America is despoiled, the natural resources plundered, the air and water polluted, the cities decayed and unlivable, the national defense undermined, the national heritage in hock, the culture defiled -- and the people faced with a racial problem which becomes more overwhelming and more threatening each year.

It is not surprising that there is no plan, no order, no sense of direction in national life, and that the country merely stumbles along from one year to the next. 

The first task of an American educational system should be to burn 
the racial sense and the racial feeling into the instinct and the 
intellect, the heart and the brain of the youth entrusted to it.

And it is not surprising that tens of millions of young Americans are growing up with no sense of racial or national community, mere human ions in a formless, cosmopolitan chaos.


Organic Relationship Lacking

We are faced with a general lack of feeling of belonging to, and responsibility for, the Western racial-social-cultural community.

The natural, organic relationship between the individual and the community has been broken. It cannot be restored as long as the present System endures.

That relationship, absolutely essential to a healthy society, is a fragile thing which requires constant and careful nurture for its maintenance. It requires a training in youth which has as its principal goal the development and strengthening of that relationship, an educational process which prepares boys and girls to become the cultural and spiritual -- as well as material -- heirs of Western civilization and the Western imperium.

Sense of Racial Identity is Essential

The first task of an American educational system should be to burn the racial sense and the racial feeling into the instinct and the intellect, the heart and the brain of the youth entrusted to it. No boy and no girl should leave school without having been lead to an ultimate realization of the necessity and essence of blood purity.

Thus the groundwork would be created for preserving the racial foundations of the nation and through them in turn securing the basis of its future cultural development. For all education would in the last analysis remain worthless if it did not benefit beings ready and determined on principle to preserve themselves and their special nature.

Atomistic View of Society

Current educational philosophy in America is individual-centered, and the educational system is geared to produce well-adjusted cogs in the modern industrial-economic machine. This is in line with the atomistic or ant-heap view of society which follows from neo-liberal doctrine.

Indeed, how could education be otherwise in a multi-racial society?

How shall a racially integrated school system teach young people the greatness of their race? Which race?

How shall students learn to treasure the history and traditions of their people? Whose traditions? Which race?

How can any sense of community or belonging be developed in them? Belonging to whom?

Well-rounded Zeroes

So, what we have is an educational program designed to teach economically valuable skills with a few courses thrown in to guarantee "well-rounded"  graduates, endowed with an acceptable veneer of "culture," who can reasonably be expected to support themselves, achieve "fulfillment," and be more or less happy -- or, at least, contented. These are the neo-liberal educational goals, to be achieved with sufficient goodwill, Federal aid, and, of course a judicially determined ratio of black, brown, yellow, red, and white faces in the classroom.

The expected result is an ever-growing stream of "educated" world-citizens, raceless individuals prepared to plunge enthusiastically into the cosmopolitan consumer economy and earn enough money to "do their thing," whatever that may happen to be. The millennium is surely just around the corner!

Things, of course, are not working out so rosily as the neo-liberal ideologues had hoped, primarily because their conception of the nature of human beings suffers from several severe departures from reality.

The most notorious of these departures is the idea that a single educational system can serve the needs of beings so racially diverse that their evolutionary paths diverged some two million years ago.

A society consisting of such rootless men, alienated men, is a sick 
and unnatural society and will not long endure.

At least as damaging is the notion that a human society is simply an aggregate of human beings, each an island entire of itself. There is no understanding of the fact that a man without roots -- organic, natural roots -- in some racial community, is an incomplete man, a spiritual cripple, a man as deficient as a plant torn loose from its nurturing soil.

A society consisting of such rootless men, alienated men, is a sick and unnatural society and will not long endure.

Away with the System!

America today is not yet totally alienated, but her sickness is getting worse rapidly. It can be cured -- the process of alienation can be reversed -- but only through social surgery of a radical nature, consisting of several major steps.

The first step must be to sweep away the entire system now ruling America. All the greedy, cynical little men now wielding power must go: "liberal," "moderate," and "conservative"; McGovernite and Nixinite; Eisenhower Republican and Kennedy Democrat; Jew and shabbas goy. No "reforms" or half-measures, no compromises or political deals with traitors of race and nation, can be tolerated in this step; only a total purge will suffice.

Only after the alienation at the top has been cured can the rest of the task be tackled.

Education in the Racial State

Second, the entire educational system must be overhauled and reoriented, from kindergarten through the university level. Instead of preparing raceless, rootless individuals for the economic rat race, the new education must train boys and girls to be a valuable link in the chain of generations.

It must make young men and women feel that they are a bridge that leads from a great past into a most distant future. It must, by imparting a thorough knowledge of the history and traditions of the Western peoples, instill in young Americans an understanding of the greatness of their race.

An intimate coupling of national feeling and a sense of social justice must be implanted in the young heart. Then a people of citizens will someday arise, bound to one another and forged together by a common love and a common pride, unshakable and invincible forever.

A New Order

The third step must be the building of a new order in American life. The country has drifted without real guidance for so many years that it has picked up some bad habits which must be cured, some problems which must be solved.

The racial problem is foremost among these, and it must be solved, through resettlement or other means, regardless of the expense and sacrifices involved.

The mass media, in new hands, must finally begin serving the people instead of manipulating them. Something radical must be done about the urban monstrosities in which a natural and healthy life-style has become virtually impossible. The urban problem will be much less intense after complete separation has been effected, but there will still be much which must be cured, even if it means a massive demolition-and-bulldozing program, followed by reforestation over the rubble.

An Unlimited Future

The problem of industrial progress, economic stability, overpopulation, resource conservation, and the gradual restoration of a natural and unpolluted environment can also be solved once we have citizens and leaders whose primary goal is the long-term welfare of the race, rather than the immediate advancement of their own careers and the race be damned.

When alienation and drifting have been replaced by proper commitment and firm guidance , we will find that many problems which seem insoluble in this unfortunate era can indeed be solved and that we can achieve goals of which we hardly dare dream now.

Saturday, January 26, 2013

The Coming of the Jews to America

From Issue No. 77 of National Vanguard tabloid, 1980:

Race-conscious Dutch Governor of New Amsterdam Tried to Halt Infestation

The Coming of the Jews to America

The first 23 Jews to settle in what is now the United States landed as a group in 1654 at a small trading village at the tip of Manhattan Island. It is fitting that from the outset the destinies of American Jewry and of the little town that grew to be New York, America’s greatest city, should be linked, for it was through the portals of New York harbor that the great majority of the later Jewish immigrants to America would pass, and it was in New York that their children and grandchildren would amass the power which has made them the most influential minority in 20th century America.

No subsequent band of Jewish immigrants had a rougher journey, or a more difficult time in being admitted, than that first group of 23, who were refugees from Brazil. They were chiefly Sephardim, the Biblically derived name for the Jews of the Iberian peninsula, descendants of those Jews of the eighth century who had stealthily thrown open the gates of the Visigothic cities to the Moorish invaders and then, over the course of nearly eight centuries, battened on the glittering Islamic civilization of Toledo and Granada, Cordoba and Valencia.

The recrudescence of Spanish and Portuguese power on the peninsula, spearheaded by the crusading descendants of the Germanic Visigoths and Suebians who had fallen before the Moorish storm in the 700’s, placed the Jews of Iberia in a precarious position. As city after Moorish city, redoubt after redoubt, capitulated to the Christian onslaught, the worldly and wealthy Sephardim were forced to throw themselves on the mercies of their Christian conquerors.

At first they enjoyed no small favor with the Spanish and Portuguese kings, who esteemed the Jews’ financial acumen and their uncanny ability to sweat money from their Christian subjects. Yet their power, and increasingly their very presence, grew ever more odious to the ordinary Spaniards and Portuguese. The people chafed under the onerous regime of Jewish tax collector and Jewish usurer. For a century before 1492 the tide of popular discontent swelled to full flood: mobs sacked the opulent Jewish districts, Jews were beaten, Jews were killed.

In 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella, who had joined their realms of Aragon and Castile to form the first unified Spanish kingdom since the days of the Visigoths, acceded to the heartfelt demands of their subjects and decreed that the Jews of the land must depart. Five years later the king of Portugal followed suit. A great swarm of Jews departed Iberia forever, most of them fleeing to the African domains of the Muslims who had been their patrons in the Spain of the Moors.

Upwards of 50,000 Jews in [Spain and Portugal] were allowed 
to feign conversion to Christianity

Ominously for the West, not all the Jews who fled from Iberia went to Africa. A substantial minority headed north, where they found a ready reception in the Netherlands. Over the course of the 16th century, as the Reformation made progress in the land and as the Dutch embarked on their epic 80-year struggle for freedom from Spain, the Sephardic Jews of Amsterdam and other Dutch cities became increasingly influential.

Spain and Portugal, to their later regret, failed to drive all Jews from their territory. The Achilles heel of the anti-Semitism of the time was the notion that the Jews might be cleansed of their ancestral vices by the regenerating flow of baptismal water. Upwards of 50,000 Jews in the two countries were allowed to feign conversion to Christianity (although doubtless a few of the conversions were genuine).

Not a few of these converted Jews (the polite usage for them was conversos or “new Christians”; their opponents called them Marranos, i. e., pigs) made their way to the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the New World, as soon as the commercial possibilities of these territories became evident. It was in Brazil that the ancestors of the immigrants to New York found a center for profitable activity.

In Recife, in the province of Pernambuco, on the northwest coast of Brazil, a large number of “new Christians” established themselves as merchants and businessmen. There were only two industries of note: the raising of sugar on large plantations and the importation and sale of Black African slaves. The Jewish converts to Christianity played a large part in each of these businesses and were prominent as tax farmers as well. For over a century they plied their various trades in Recife, unvexed by the Inquisition which had been instituted in Spain and Portugal to ferret out secret Jews in the ranks of the conversos.

The rise of the Netherlands as a maritime power at the start of the 17th century soon brought a change in the affairs of Brazil. During the course of their war with the Spanish, the Dutch had begun to resort to piracy on the high seas. Their successes encouraged the doughty burghers of Amsterdam and Rotterdam to embark on a more ambitious policy by which they would displace the Spanish and Portuguese as merchants to the Indies and to the Americas.

They made little headway against Spain’s overseas possessions, but Portugal, exhausted by its heroic efforts of the preceding two centuries, vitiated by an influx of Negro genes, and overrun by Spain, was an easy prey. One by one Portugal’s overseas possessions and trading factories fell to the Dutch: Java, Mauritius, the South African Cape, India’s Malabar and Coromandel coasts.

The Dutch followed up their conquests with a vigorous trade conducted by the Dutch East India and West India Companies. A good number of Sephardic Jews who had come from Spain and Portugal participated in these joint-stock companies. The Jews of Amsterdam and the other Dutch commercial centers brought more than capital to their ventures: through their ties to their Marrano kinsmen scattered around the world in Spanish and Portuguese colonies, they had access to commercial and military intelligence as well.

In 1630 the forces of the Dutch West India Company launched an invasion against Pernambuco. The Jewish “new Christians” promptly sided with the invaders, acting as a fifth column to frustrate the Portuguese defenders. During the subsequent 25 years of Dutch rule Recife’s Marranos returned openly to Judaism, practicing in public what they had hitherto practiced in private.

The Jews of Recife maintained their activity in the slave trade, buying slaves imported by Dutch carriers and reselling them, at exorbitant profits, to the sugar planters. They also continued as tax farmers, collecting 63 per cent of Dutch-ruled Pernambuco’s revenues, and pursued their various other commercial interests. A synagogue was built, and the Jewish community flourished.

The Portuguese were not easily reconciled to the loss of Pernambuco and its capital city, Recife. They waged a bitter guerrilla war against the Dutch invaders and their Jewish allies which culminated in the Portuguese re-conquest of Pernambuco in 1654.

While one might have expected a condign and merciless settling of accounts with the Jewish false Christians of Recife, the Portuguese viceroy was most mild. Although he decreed that the Jews must depart Pernambuco, he allowed them to sell their property at good prices and to leave with their liquid assets. The Jews of Pernambuco disposed of their sugar plantations and slave pens, and set sail for the Netherlands, where their coreligionists would assure them a friendly reception.

All but one of more than 20 boatloads of Jews to sail from Brazil reached Holland. The Jews aboard one ship, however, were plundered by pirates in the Caribbean and then rescued by a French privateer, the St. Catherine, whose captain was bound for New Amsterdam. When the St. Catherine, with its 23 Jewish passengers, reached Manhattan Island sometime in early September 1654, the Jews applied for permanent residency in the little trading village.

Although the bourgeois Dutch were in general favorably disposed to the Jews, the governor of New Amsterdam, Pieter Stuyvesant, was an exception. Hardkoppige Piet (Hard-headed Pete), as he was known, had opposed Jews settling on the Caribbean island of Curacao when he was the Dutch West India Company’s governor there several years before. He was no less opposed to Jewish settlers in New Amsterdam.


In a long communication to his superiors in Amsterdam, Stuyvesant wrote: “The Jews who have arrived would nearly all like to remain here, but learning that they (with their customary usury and deceitful trading with the Christians) were very repugnant to the inferior magistrates, as also to the people having the most affection for you; the Deaconry also fearing that owing to their present indigence they might become a charge in the coming winter, we have, for the benefit of this weak. and newly developing place and the land in general, deemed it useful to require them in a friendly way to depart.”

The little company of Jews was not so easily gotten rid of, however. While Stuyvesant awaited the directors’ permission to send the Jews on their way, the leaders of the would-be immigrants drafted their own letter to the directors of the West India Company, vaunting their sympathy for the Dutch in Pernambuco (“It is well known to your honors that the Jewish nation in Brazil has at all times been faithful and has striven to guard and maintain that place, risking for that purpose their possessions and their blood.”). A more potent talking point, however, was the position of some of their fellow Jews in the Company: “You should also please consider that many of the Jewish nation are principal shareholders in the Company.”

The Jewish “new Christians” promptly sided with the invaders

The response from the directors of the Dutch East India Company arrived at New Amsterdam the next spring. It is a classic of cowardice and equivocation, first conceding the threat posed by the Jewish presence to the colony, but then going on to justify that presence on the basis of the Jewish financial power in Amsterdam: “We would have liked to effectuate and fulfill your wishes and request that the new territory should be no more allowed to be infected by people of the Jewish nation. for we foresee therefrom the same difficulties which you fear. but after having further weighed and considered the matter. we observe that this would be somewhat unreasonable and unfair, especially because of the considerable loss suffered by the nation, with others, in the taking of Brazil, as also because of the large amount of shares which they [the wealthy Jews of Amsterdam] still have invested in the Company. ”

For two years thereafter Stuyvesant fought a rearguard action against the alien interlopers, attempting to deny them citizenship as well as the privilege of plying their various trades in the colony. In a letter to the Company directors dated October 25, 1655, Stuyvesant pointed out that “to give liberty to the Jews will be very detrimental here, because the Christians here will not be able at the same time to do business” — a misgiving that has been borne out in so many fields of endeavor in America over the subsequent three centuries.
Stuyvesant: "to give liberty to the Jews will be very detrimental here"

Stuyvesant’s efforts were all in vain. The directors of the Dutch East India Company granted the Jews of New Amsterdam one liberty after another, until by 1660 they were on an equal footing, in every respect, with the colony’s Dutch citizens. One of their number, Asser Levy, soon became one of New Amsterdam’s wealthiest traders and landowners. The Jews of what was to become, a few years later with the British conquest, New York, were on their way.


Pegleg Peter Stuyvesant, hassling Asser Levy, the wealthy lawyer, butcher, land speculator, and first Jew to be granted citizenship in New Amsterdam -- in 1667 by the English Assembly that supplanted the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam and changed its name to New York. Stuyvesant vigorously opposed the decision to grant citizenship to Levy. 

Friday, January 18, 2013

Sluyterman: Artist of Blood and Soil

“Who wants to live, so he must  fight, and who does not want to fight in this world of eternal struggle does not deserve to live.”  - Mein Kampf

From National Vanguard tabloid, Issue No. 63, 1978:
Sluyterman: Artist of Blood and Soil

Georg Sluyterman van Langeweyde, a great graphic artist, painter and folksong composer, died last January at the age of 74 [born: 4/13/1903]. His body was laid to rest in the German soil of his beloved Lueneburg Heath.

His graphic art combines a respect for the natural wonder of the forest, field and living earth and an admiration for the quiet, patient rural folk character.

In his clear, folk-based art, Sluyterman attacked the twentieth century tendency toward cosmopolitan formlessness and alienation.

In an Sluyterman graphic piece, man is one with nature, and one with his nature. He is not alienated from his surroundings, nor from his own racial soul.

Sluyterman's style breathes a sense of order and place. His art unifies a natural realism and a sober idealism; A careful depiction of what is with an affirmation of what is to be.

His idealism was harmonious with the striving for perfection inherent in nature itself.

Sluyterman's works convey a joyful affirmation of life. It is not the empty "happiness" of the rootless Pepsi generation, but the proud feeling of fulfillment which comes from meaningful accomplishment. His joy in living sprang from a humble awareness of man's mortal place in the natural order.

Sluyterman was an artistic personality in the fullest sense of the term. He was something of a vagabond, who ignored social norms and the conventions of attire. He didn't care about money or possessions.

As seriously as he took art, he was personally spontaneous, joyful and fun-loving. He enjoyed singing among friends in his full, baritone voice.* His warm personality, friendly smile and kind words came from the heart.

Sluyterman's truly folkloric style won wide appreciation and high recognition. His masterful linoleum prints were displayed in the prestigious Great German Art Exhibition held annually in Munich from 1938 to 1944.

He was also an accomplished painter, and his popular country songs became accepted as genuine folk songs during his lifetime.

Sluyterman, whose ancestors came from Holland, was a great German and European patriot. He never sacrificed his honor for expediency or financial gain.

H was also no "sunshine patriot." Sluyterman continued to defend his national cultural and political heritage even after the catastrophe of 1945. He was an active member of the patriotic German Cultural Foundation of the European Spirit (Deutsches Kulturwerk Europaeischen Geistes), founded after the Second World War.

* It's assumed that the singer with the "full baritone voice" in this video is Georg Sluyterman:

The photo above is of George Sluyterman, available in a Google Image search. The rarer picture below is not found in an Internet search, but accompanies the article about Mr. Sluyterman in Mortimer Davidson's Kunst in Deutschland 1933-1945, Malerei II, published by Grabert Verlag Tubingen, 1992 (page 425) It is assumed to be a self-portrait since no other artist is credited.